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A Brief Introduction to Criminology

A Brief Introduction to Criminology

Criminology can be defined as the study related to crimes based on scientific observations and conclusions. Often it has been treated as an associative field of behavioral sciences. The areas, which are specific to criminology, include various factors like, the cause, nature and extent of the crime, the management and control of criminal behavior, assessing the consequences of crimes along with the possible ways of preventing them. The study includes not only individuals in their scope but also societies and communities.
Criminology has been developed with the restless efforts of various law scholars along with notable other intellectuals. These intellectuals include sociologists, social anthropologists, psychologists and psychiatrists. Their research has brought many valuable contributions in the field of criminology. The Italian professor of law named Raffaele Garofalo first coined the term of ‘Criminology’ in 1885 in the Italian format of criminologia. The analogous term in French, criminology was used much later by the famous French anthropologist, named Paul Topinard.
The study of criminology rose to advent during the middle part of the 18th Century. It happened when some social philosophers and scholars gave their thoughts and time towards the various concepts of crime and law. These thoughts and observations gave rise to various thought schools in the field of criminology. Initially, there were three main schools: Classical, Positive along with Chicago. With the passage of time, some contemporary paradigms also crept in like control, sub-culture, strain, labeling along with various branches of criminology like critical, cultural, postmodern and feminist.

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